Committing to antiracist teaching practices in a white supremacist culture requires a lifetime of reflection, study, research, advocacy, and transformation of practice at the individual and institutional levels.
In what follows we introduce five practices fundamental to developing as antiracist educators, and point the way to additional resources, reading lists, and programs. The last two principles, Equity and Inclusion, are the backbone of all of UCSC’s teaching initiatives, so there may be overlap between the resources here and elsewhere on our site.
Five Fundamentals of Antiracist Teaching
REFLECTION: Strengthen awareness of racial exclusion and engage in critical reassessment of one’s practices
The Association of American Colleges & Universities (AAC&U) includes in its definition of inclusive excellence the importance of educators who are willing to “critically reassess their own practices,” be race-conscious, and be “aware of the social and historical context of exclusionary practices” in higher education in the United States.
In addition to this awareness practice, educators committed to practicing antiracism can engage in ongoing personal reflection to build intrapersonal awareness, which involves “engaging in a reflexive and critical examination of the ideas, assumptions, and values that we bring to the classroom” (Salazar et al. 2009).
Resources for educator personal reflection:
- A Framework of Educator Mindsets and Consequences (Filback and Green 2013)
- Acknowledging Institutional Racism (Richards 2018)
- Reflecting on Racial Socialization (National Museum of African American History & Culture)
- Black, Brown, Bruised: How Racialized STEM Education Stifles Education (McGee 2020)
CLIMATE: Foster an antiracist classroom climate
Classroom climate is an important contributor to students’ sense of belonging, which in turn affects students’ ability and motivation to learn and to persist in their education (Strayhorn 2019). Classroom climate refers to the implicit and explicit messages in every teaching and learning context that indicate what and who is valued. It includes a “constellation of interacting factors” such as: faculty-student interactions; the tone set by the instructor; student-to-student interactions; implicit norms or expectations for interactions; the course demographics; the perspectives represented in the course content and materials, and more (Ambrose et al. 2010).
Educators can strive to create more anti-racist, inclusive learning environments through such actions as: making transparent our course expectations and rationale for assignments; collaboratively creating community guidelines with our students; and being intentional with how we communicate about student learning, such as by using growth-mindset language and reducing stereotype threat.
Resources for creating a more antiracist classroom climate:
- Classroom Climate (Life Sciences Education Inclusive Teaching Guide)
- Reducing Stereotype Threat: Strategies for Instructors (Washington University)
- College Students’ Sense of Belonging: A Key to Educational Success for All Students (Strayhorn 2019)
CURRICULUM: Revise course and program curricula to better reflect diverse contributions to (and address exclusions from) the discipline
Our academic disciplines and their core curricula carry legacies of oppression that have ongoing impact, including structural racism and colonialism. What we may consider as the “usual” practices for constructing knowledge in our disciplines are neither neutral nor objective. Practicing antiracist teaching involves, but importantly does not end at, revising our curricula— both at the individual course level and at the departmental/programmatic level—to better reflect the contributions that a wide variety of scholars and communities have made to the discipline or field. It also involves bringing explicit attention to the exclusions that our disciplines have perpetuated, in order to support students to strengthen their own critical thinking skills and confidence in their own and their communities’ contributions to the field. Keep in mind that the curriculum includes more than course materials; it also can include the examples, metaphors, and case studies that are utilized (Ambrose et al. 2010).
Resources for developing antiracist curricula:
EQUITY: Investigate and take responsibility for equitable access and outcomes at the course, program, and campus level
Educational equity practitioners like Tia Brown McNair, Estela Mara Bensimon, and their colleagues have noted that the word “equity” has become more widely accepted in higher education environments, becoming as commonplace as (and sometimes used interchangeably with) the term “diversity” (McNair et al. 2020). While a diversity lens focuses on bringing in more students into an institution or field of study, an equity lens focuses on redressing institutional barriers that get in the way of student persistence and success (USC Center for Urban Education). Equity places emphasis on successful outcomes for the students who have been excluded from and are marginalized in spaces of learning.
McNair, Bensimon, and colleagues (2020) utilize a three-part definition of equity:
- Equity is a means of corrective justice (McPherson 2015) that aims to support minoritized populations willfully excluded from higher education.
- Equity is an antiracist project that aims to confront overt and covert racism embedded in institutional structures, policies, and practices (Pollock 2009).
- Equity requires practitioners to see whiteness as a norm that operates, unperceived, through structures, policies, and practices that racialize the culture and outcomes of higher education institutions.
Creating the conditions for equitable student outcomes requires educators to counter assumptions about and interpretations of student performance that fail to notice racial inequities. It requires providing more resources and support to students who have not received it (USC Center for Urban Education).
Resources for creating more equitable learning outcomes:
INCLUSIVE PRACTICE: Practice inclusive and equitable course design and delivery
Inclusive teaching involves “deliberately cultivating a learning environment where all students are treated equitably, have equal access to learning, and feel valued and supported in their learning. Such teaching attends to social identities and seeks to change the ways systemic inequities shape dynamics in teaching-learning spaces” (University of Michigan CRLT). Moreover, it is an approach to teaching that is student-centered and holistic, in that it “engages the wealth of intersecting social identities and positionalities that all students bring to the classroom” and “permeate[s] every aspect of curriculum and course design,” including assessment practices (Iturbe-LaGrave 2018).
Inclusive teaching practices (in any discipline) include (but are not limited to):
- Co-creating with students expectations for classroom engagement
- Building continuous feedback and iteration into the design of the course (Chew, Houston, and Cooper 2020)
- Implementing Universal Design for Learning principles into the design of the course
- Utilizing accessible communication practices and course policies
- Providing students with options for assessment
Resources for integrating inclusive teaching practices:
- Equitable Assessment Practices (Tufts University)
- Practices for Teaching in Times of Trauma (Imad 2020)
- Inclusive Teaching (Dewsbury and Brame 2019)
- The Anti-Racist Discussion Pedagogy Handbook (Chew, Houston, and Cooper 2020)
- Guidelines for Discussing Difficult or High-Stakes Topics (University of Michigan)
Special Considerations for Antiracist Online Teaching
A few ways to enact antiracist pedagogy in your online course:
- Require students to engage in critical self-reflection and discussion, in journals and/or asynchronous discussion forums (Valcarlos et al. 2020). Online forums like Canvas Discussions, Piazza, or Discord should be frequently monitored by your teaching team, and students should agree to and follow discussion agreements.
- Legitimize students’ emotions, identities, and cultures (Valcarlos et al. 2020). This can include incorporating course materials from diverse scholars, as well as making space in your course for students to draw connections between course materials and their own lives. This can happen in online forums, using an asynchronous video tool like Flip, or live in Zoom breakout groups.
- Mitigate stereotype threat by communicating your belief in students’ ability to achieve the high standards you’ve set for the course—especially for high-stakes assessments and assignments. It also helps to provide students concrete, actionable feedback on their work (Brown University 2020). Giving students substantive comments in a Canvas rubric or recording short, informal videos to describe upcoming major assignments are two ways to offer this support in an online course.
Addressing microaggressions in the online classroom
A student’s perspective
“On one hand, the online course provided a platform where students felt comfortable expressing their opinions… But on the other hand, it also allowed students to speak almost without a filter… students feel more comfortable making comments that are offensive to other students when they’re online.” (Ortega et al. 2015)
Responding in the moment
From Ortega et al. 2018: “Employing an anti-racist pedagogy to online learning requires that we be prepared for when a microaggression occurs, not if.”
- Focus on supporting the students and their emotional reactions rather than being defensive if you did not notice the microaggression
- Assign a reading on microaggressions relevant to the incident
- Engage students in critical self-reflection in an online forum
Programs, Readings, and Resources
- “Inclusive Pedagogy” at the University of Denver
- “Inclusive Teaching Resources & Strategies” at the University of Michigan
- Antiracist Online Pedagogy (Digital Pedagogy Lab)
- Ortega, Amelia and Matthea Marquart (2016, June). Anti-oppression strategies for online educational environments. Workshop presented at the St. Cloud 7th Annual ARPAC Workshop – Anti-Racist Pedagogy Across the Curriculum.
- Ortega, Amelia., Marquart, Matthea, and Malwina Andruczyk. (2015, April). Addressing acts of oppression within online classrooms: Best practices and collaborative solutions. Workshop presented at the Social Work Distance Education Conference, Indianapolis.
- The Antiracist Reading List (Ibram X. Kendi)
- “Becoming an Anti-Racist Educator” at Wheaton College
- Racial Justice and Pedagogy Reading List (GLCA/GLCC)
- Brown University. (2020). Effective Teaching Is Anti-Racist Teaching. The Harriet W. Sheridan Center for Teaching and Learning-Teaching and Learning Resources.